Introduction: The Mitrofanoff principle was originally described in paediatric population as a method to provide an alternative access to the bladder. It creates a conduit to the bladder through which patients with a sensitive, absent or traumatized urethra can perform clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) easily. We report our experience with complete laparoscopic approach in an adult patient with complex urogenital malformation and multiple previous surgeries.
Methods: 39 years old female patient born with urogenital sinus plus anorectal atresia and bicornuate uterus with several reconstructive surgeries during neonatal and infant period. Previous to the surgery, the patient was performing several CIC per day with increasing difficulty, pain and urethrorrhagia. The patient was incontinent due to elevate post-voiding residue due to an ineffective evacuation by catheter. Low bladder pressure was confirmed by urodynamics. Pelvic MRI showed atypical morphology of the bladder after previous surgery plus cystic image in the right iliac fossa related to anexial cyst without visualizing the anal sphincter complex.
Results: A 4 port transperitoneal approach was used :2 of 10 mm laparoscopic ports and 2 of 5mm ports. The 10 mm camera port was placed trough the umbilicus and the rest in the midline and lateral to the edge of the rectus abdominis muscle. After liberation of several abdominal adherences, we found the appendix and right hemicolon medially and cranially displaced. The appendix was harvested with preservation of the vascular supply and ligated at its base. The appendix was assessed to determine whether the length was adequate to reach the anterior abdominal wall. The bladder was filled with saline and a 3 cm vertical seromuscular incision was made in the right posterior wall of the bladder down to the mucosa. Appendicovesical anastomosis was then performed, and seromuscular layer of the bladder was closed creating a tunnel for the appendix. The tightness of the bladder anastomosis was tested by bladder filling. Care was taken to ensure absence of twisting or tension on the appendiceal mesentery. The appendix was then brought up to the abdominal wall and a catheterizable stoma was created with 8 Fr catheter left through the appendix. The operative time was 300 min and estimated blood loss was 120 cc. The patient was discharged at eighth day.
Conclusions: Pure laparoscopic Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy is feasible in adult patients even with previous and complicated surgeries. Pure laparoscopic Mitrofanoff is associated with reasonable outcome, early recovery and good cosmesis. The main disadvantage is the long operative time due to anatomical challenges.