As renewable energy increases its capacity, the need for larger energy storage systems also increases. Lithium ion storage technology has shown to be a preferred method of energy storage to support the renewable sector. As energy storage system capacities increase, so does the thermal demand observed by these systems. In addition, as the energy density of the batteries increases, so does the heat density. This places more stringent requirements on the thermal management designs required to support the batteries. This presentation examines the effects of thermal management upon the life expectancy and performance of the battery system and the influence it places on the thermal management system. This presentation also explores the different technologies that may be employed to heat and cool the batteries and their surroundings as well as the roles that computational fluid dynamics play in determining design features. Finally, we delve into typical design requirements of the thermal management system and strategies for reducing equipment sizing and auxiliary loading due to thermal management.