Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Kwara, Nigeria
Olaide Olanrewaju (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho)| Leonard Ehigie (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho)| Faith Oyelere (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho)| Fiyinfolu Ojeniyi (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho)| Folasade Olabinri (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho)| Tolulope Oyedeji (University of Lagos)| Adeola Ehigie (Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho)| Ige Olaoye (McPherson University)
Medicinal plants induce apoptosis through the opening of the Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition Pore (MMPTP). Pathogenesis of diseases like Cancer, Atherosclerosis e.t.c. is largely due to excessive cells proliferation. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of the root extract of Plumbago zeylanica (PZ) on the MMPTP in male albino rats.
PZ root collected were pulverized and cold extracted in distilled water yielding the crude aqueous extract (CAE). The Aqueous, Ethylacetate, Butanol, and n-Hexane Fractions were obtained through solvent-solvent partitioning of the CAE. Sixty (60) male albino rats weighing between 100 and 150 g were randomly allocated into four major groups: (1) Aqueous Fraction Fed (AFF), (2) Butanol Fraction Fed (BFF), (3) Ethylacetate Fraction Fed (EFF) and n-Hexane Fraction Fed (NFF). Each group was further divided into three subgroups. The rats in each subgroups were orally administered with 0.04 mg/kg body weight (bw), 0.05 mg/kg bw and 0.06 mg/kg bw of the fractions for 28 days respectively.
MMPTP and other biochemical parameters (Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, ATPase etc) were evaluated. Histopathological studies were also carried out. Data were analysed using the one way analysis of variance and student’s t-test. Level of significance was set at P<0.05.
Results showed that the BFF group exhibited the highest MMPTP induction with 0.04 mg/kg bw showing a significant fold-increase (P <0.05) relative to the control. AFF also displayed inductive effect in the order of 0.05 mg/kg bw > 0.06 mg/kg bw > 0.04 mg/kg bw, while EFF and NFF groups were both in the order 0.05 mg/kg bw > 0.04 mg/kg bw > 0.06 mg/kg bw. A significantly high (P <0.05) ATPase activity was observed at 0.04 mg/kg bw for the BFF (0.470 mMPi/mg protein) compared with the control (0.106 mMPi/mg protein).
Significantly lowered (P <0.05) MDA level was observed for BFF at 0.06 mg/kg bw with respect to the control. The AFF and EFF showed significant increase (P <0.05) in the activities of AST, ALT and GGT at the tested dosages (with the highest increase observed at 0.06 mg/kg bw compared to the control). The immunohistochemical study revealed a significant increase (P <0.05) in the caspase-9 activity at 0.06 mg/kg bw for all fractions tested.
In conclusion, the Butanol Fraction had the most potent effect on MMPT induction, ATPase activities and caspase 9 activation, suggestive of it being a potent inducer of cell death through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway; a major means of treating diseases arising from cellular proliferation. Further work on bioassay guided fractionation will be done to assess the bioactive compounds responsible for the observed effects.
Quantitative immunohistochemical representation of apoptic marker of liver sections labelled with anti-caspase 9 arising from aqueous and ethylacetate fractions Quantitative immunohistochemical representation of apoptic marker of liver sections labelled with anti-caspase 9 arising from butanol and N-hexane fractions