PhD Student James Cook University Douglas, Australia
Kezia Drane (James Cook University)| Roger Huerlimann (James Cook University)| Michelle Power (Macquarie University)| Ellen Ariel (James Cook University)| Madoc Sheehan (James Cook University)| Robert Kinobe (James Cook University)
The development and environmental transmission of antibiotic resistance (ABR) pathogens is of global public health concern. In marine environments, this problem is associated at least in part, with pollution due to anthropogenic activities such as discharging wastewater and industrial waste run-off. Herein we systematically reviewed and evaluated the incidence of ABR identified in Green sea turtles and their propensity to be used as bio-indicators for monitoring ABR in marine environments because of their highly migratory nature and reliance on sea vegetation. ABR was identified using standard culture and sensitivity tests; quantitatively represented as percentages of confirmed bacterial isolates. Studied sites to date are represented by clusters in the Arabian Sea and the Pacific and Atlantic oceans; frequencies of identified multidrug resistant bacteria (MDRB) were: 78 ± 16%, 42 ± 13% and 16% respectively. Antimicrobials of the beta-lactam class were associated with the highest cumulative frequency of resistance (103%) compared to quinonolones (31%) and aminoglycosides (30%) across all sites. This data seems to reflect concerted, global efforts to reserve and minimise the use of aminoglycosides and quinolones. These ABR patterns mirror trends in the use of antibiotics in anthropogenic activities generally. However, there is a need to establish direct associations between ABR in sea turtles with wastewater and other anthropogenic activities in marine environments worldwide.
Distribution of geographical sites where Green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) have been used as bio-indicators of ABR. The plus sign (+) and MDRB denotes the percentage of isolates that were resistant to at least three different classes of antibiotics. ARGs refers to antibiotic resistance genes and, ND (not determined) Distribution of ABR detected in Green sea turtles against commonly used antibiotics by geographical environment (A) and anatomical site (B).Abbreviations: Ampicillin;Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid;Penicillin;Cefalexin; Cefotaxime;Ceftiofur;Carbenicillin; Ceftazidime;Enrofloxacin;Nalidixic acid;Streptomycin;Kanamycin; Gentamicin;Neomycin;Tobramycin; Amikacin;Erythromycin;Rifampicin; Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim;Chloramphenicol; Vancomycin;Nitrofurantoin;Tetracycline; Doxycycline;Minocycline.