Professor Institute for Behavioral Health Waltham, Massachusetts
Research Objectives: To address gaps in knowledge, we examined differences in prescription opioid use and alcohol related behaviors among adults with and without disabilities.
Design: Secondary analyses of a statewide population-based cross-sectional survey.
Setting: The 2018 Ohio Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey.
Participants: The analytic sample included adults who completed the disability, prescription opioid use, and alcohol items (n = 12,498).
Main Outcome Measures: Disabilities were self-reported using standardized questions about difficulties with vision, hearing, ambulation, cognition, self-care, or independent living. Prescription opioid use included any past year prescription opioid use, and opioid misuse (i.e., using opioids more frequently or in higher doses than prescribed and/or using a prescription opioid not prescribed to you). Alcohol outcomes included: any alcohol use in the past 30 days; and binge drinking in the past 30 days (i.e., ≥ 5 drinks in one sitting for men or ≥ 4 for women). Logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age, race/ethnicity, and marital status.
Results: Approximately one-third of the sample self-reported at least one disability (34.3%). Over one-quarter of adults (26.4%) reported past year prescription opioid use, and 3.5% met criteria for past year opioid misuse. Preliminary results indicate that disability status was associated with increased odds of both past year prescription opioid use [AOR = 2.67, 95% CI 2.44-2.93, p < .001] and past year opioid misuse [AOR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.73-2.64, p < .001], compared to adults without a disability. On the contrary, disability was associated with reduced odds of past month alcohol use [AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.49-0.58, p < .001] and past month binge drinking [AOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.87, p < .001], compared to adults without a disability.
Conclusions: Adults with disabilities were less likely to use alcohol and report binge drinking than adults without disabilities, yet they were at greater risk for prescription opioid use and misuse. These findings highlight the importance of ensuring that substance use treatment is accessible and accommodating to the needs of individuals with disabilities.
Author(s) Disclosures: This study was funded by NIDILRR grant # 90DPGE0007. BRFSS data used in these analyses were obtained from the Ohio Department of Health (ODH), supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Use of these data does not imply that ODH or CDC agrees or disagrees with the analyses, interpretations or conclusions in this publication. The contents of this paper do not necessarily represent the policy of NIDILRR, ACL, HHS, VHA, ODH, and CDC and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.
Describe the prevalence of disabilities and types of disabilities (difficulties with vision, hearing, ambulation, cognition, self-care, or independent living) among adults in Ohio.
Describe differences in alcohol-use (i.e., any use and binge drinking) among adults with and without disabilities.
Describe differences in prescription opioid use and misuse among adults with and without disabilities.