Loss of the Ras GTPase-activating protein neurofibromin promotes the development of aggressive spindle cell neoplasms known as Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors (MPNSTs) in patients with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Currently, the available chemotherapeutic regimens and radiotherapy are ineffective against MPNSTs, so the prognosis for patients with these neoplasms is poor. Neurofibromin loss dysregulates multiple Ras proteins in the classic (H-Ras, N-Ras, K-Ras) and R-Ras (R-Ras, R-Ras2/TC21, R-Ras3/M-Ras) subfamilies. Consequently, it is unclear which Ras proteins or pathways regulated by these Ras proteins should be therapeutically targeted in MPNSTs. We have previously shown that classic Ras proteins drive MPNST cell proliferation and survival. However, the role(s) of the R-Ras subfamily of proteins in MPNSTs have not been elucidated. To determine how R-Ras proteins contribute to the pathogenesis of neurofibromin-null MPNSTs, we introduced dominant negative (DN) R-Ras mutants, which are pan-inhibitors of the R-Ras subfamily, into MPNST cells and assessed the impact of R-Ras subfamily inhibition on mitogenesis, migration and the phosphoproteome. A panel of MPNST cell lines (STS-26T, YST-1, ST88-14, 90-8, NMS2, NMS-PC, S462, T265-2c) was used. Methodologies utilized include immunoblotting, PCR, Transwell migration, 3H-thymidine incorporation, and mass spectrometric analysis of phosphoprotein-enriched specimens. We found that R-Ras and R-Ras2 are widely expressed and can be activated in neurofibromin-null MPNST cells. In contrast to classic Ras proteins, we found that R-Ras proteins drive MPNST both mitogenesis and migration. Using mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomics, we identified thirteen protein networks that were regulated by DN R-Ras, including networks affecting cellular movement via effects on microtubules. We chose to further study changes in ROCK1 phosphorylation and found that R-Ras subfamily proteins function, at least in some part, through the same pathways as ROCK1. We conclude that R-Ras proteins promote tumorigenesis by regulating distinct signaling pathways that regulate MPNST mitogenesis and migration.