McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Ctr at Houston
Objectives: To investigate the impact of biopsy preceding resection compared to upfront resection in glioblastoma overall survival (OS) and post-operative outcomes using the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Methods: A total of 17,334 GBM patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 were derived from the NCDB. Patients were categorized into two groups: “upfront resection” versus “biopsy followed by resection”. Primary outcome was OS. Post-operative outcomes including 30-day readmission/mortality, 90-day mortality, and prolonged length of inpatient hospital stay (LOS) were secondary endpoints. Kaplan-Meier methods and accelerated failure time (AFT) models with gamma distribution were applied for survival analysis. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were performed to compare differences in the post-operative outcomes between these groups. Results: Patients undergoing “upfront resection” experienced superior survival compared to those undergoing “biopsy followed by resection” (median OS: 12.4 versus 11.1 months, log-rank test: P=0.001). In multivariable AFT models, significant survival benefits were observed among patients undergoing “upfront resection” (time ratio [TR]: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.75-0.93, P=0.001). Patients undergoing upfront GTR had the longest survival compared to upfront STR, GTR following STR, or GTR and STR following an initial biopsy (14.4 vs. 10.3, 13.5, 13.3, and 9.1, months), respectively (TR: 1.00 [Ref.], 0.75, 0.82, 0.88, and 0.67). Recent years of diagnosis, higher income and treatment at academic facilities were significantly associated with the likelihood of undergoing upfront resection after adjusting the covariates. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that 30-day mortality and 90-day mortality were decreased by 73% and 44% for patients undergoing “upfront resection” over “biopsy followed by resection”, respectively (both p < 0.001).
Conclusions: Pre-operative biopsies for surgically accessible tumors with characteristic imaging features of Glioblastoma lead to worse survival despite subsequent resection compared to patients undergoing upfront resection.