Radio-resistance mechanisms limit the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) for melanoma brain metastases. A key pathway for radiation-induced DNA double-strand break repair is non-homologous end joining, which is critically mediated by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). Here we evaluated radio-sensitizing effects of M3814, a selective oral inhibitor of DNA-PKcs, in patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of melanoma brain metastases. In a clonogenic survival assay, M3841 augmented RT-induced killing of M12 cells at concentrations of ≥300 nM, and a minimum of 16 h exposure with ~300 nM M3814 was required for effective sensitization. M3814 inhibited RT-induced (5 Gy) auto-phosphorylation of serine-2056 of DNA-PKcs in primary cultures of M12, M15 and M27 PDX lines. Interestingly, inhibition of RT-induced DNA-PKcs by M3814 coincided with increased KAP1 phosphorylation, a DNA damage signaling regulated via ATM. Persistent γH2AX foci were observed in 28% M12 cells at 24 hours after co-treatment with M3814 and RT as compared to 12% cells following RT alone. In vivo pharmacokinetic analysis after single oral dose of 20 mg/kg M3814, showed reasonably short half-life (~2.44 hours) and poor brain distribution in wild-type FBV mice (Kpuu, 0.027). Consistent with an efflux liability, brain distribution of M3814 in triple knockout mice for BCRP/MDR1A/B was ~11 fold higher (Kpuu, 0.215). Compared to normal brain, much higher M3814 concentrations were detected in intracranially implanted M12 tumors (~23 fold and ~20 fold) 2 and 6 hours after a single oral dose of 50mg/kg respectively. The relative exclusion of M3814 from normal brain as compared to brain metastases suggests that this drug may have a favorable toxicity profile when combined with radiation for treatment of melanoma brain metastases, and this hypothesis is being tested in ongoing efficacy studies.