Results of urinalysis will be compared between in-house and that from sending to a reference laboratory. The "complete" urinalysis will be emphasized as that consisting of analysis of physical, chemical, and urinary sediment findings. Determination of urinary specific gravity by use of refractometry will be advanced as important in analysis of kidney function. Hyradine, granular, cellular, and waxy casts will be detailed as to how they form and what their presence implies clinically. This session is visually rich showing abnormalities. Analysis of fresh warm urine will be emphasized as a technique that allows more accurate identification of abnormalities in urinary sediment. Automated methods for urine microscopy will be introduced.