Purpose: The purpose of the current study is to find a correlation/association of salivary IGF-1 (sIGF-1), salivary estradiol (sE2), and salivary testosterone (sT) to skeletal maturity in orthodontic patients as determined by CVMS. Secondary objective of this study is to correlate age, height and weight of the patient with CVMS.
Methods: A cross-sectional clinical research was initiated after IRB approval that included 105 new patients from Roseman University of Health Sciences Orthodontic Clinic of age 8-25 years. Patient’s age, height and weight were recorded at the initial records appointment. Cephalometric radiographs via CBCT were graded for CVMS by two observers independently at two different time points. Saliva samples were obtained via passive drool technique and kept frozen at -80 0C until analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the concentrations of IGF-1, sE2 and sT. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear regression were used to determine the association between sIGF-1, age, height, and weight of the patient.
Results: Study subjects included 60 females (mean age 13.11±3.13 years) and 45 males (mean age 14.5±2.88 years). Distribution of CVMS in male patients differed significantly from female patients in stages III (male 20%, female 28%), IV (male 30%, female 13%) and V (male 11%, female 20%). sIGF-1 concentrations were higher and reached peak in male patients at CVMS IV and in female patients at CVMS III, which was statistically significant for female patients between CVMS II-III (Fig 1). sIGF-1 concentration peaked around age 13.5 year for male and 12.5 year for females (Fig 2) that coincided with CVMS III in both genders. sE2 concentration was highest between CVMS IV-V for male patients and CVMS IV for female patients (Fig 3). No statistical significance was observed for sE2 concentration with any specific CVMS in either gender. sE2 concentrations increased with age in males (>15 year) and females (~11.5 year). sT concentrations peaked at CVMS IV in male and female patients around age 16 and were statistically significant between CVMS I and IV in both the genders (Fig 4).
Conclusion: sIGF-1 and sT showed weak correlation with higher CVMS and age. sE2 levels were not significant for male or female patients in association with chronological age and CVMS. sT in males strongly correlated to chronological age, while females showed a moderate correlation with chronological age. Mean age of male patients was slightly higher than female patients in specific CVMS category indicating female patients attaining earlier skeletal maturation. Increase in patient height correlated with increase in age and CVMS. A larger prospective study is needed to validate these observation.
Kayla Bateman– Orthodontist, Roseman University of Health Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Henderson, Nevada
Casey Luu– Orthodontic Resident, Roseman University of Health Sciences College of Dental Medicine, Henderson, Nevada
Prashanti Bollu– Associate Professor of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Henderson, Nevada